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The Nutrition And Feeding Of Farmed Fish And Shrimp

By the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations - The classification, structure and biological function of the essential nutrients are described; including proteins and amino acids, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and energy. The quantitative dietary nutrient requirements of fish and shrimp are critically reviewed, and suggestions made for dietary nutrient levels within practical complete diets for carnivorous and omnivorous fish and shrimp species.

The Nutrition And Feeding Of Farmed Fish And Shrimp - By the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations - The classification, structure and biological function of the essential nutrients are described; including proteins and amino acids, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and energy. The quantitative dietary nutrient requirements of fish and shrimp are critically reviewed, and suggestions made for dietary nutrient levels within practical complete diets for carnivorous and omnivorous fish and shrimp species. FAO

Abstract

1.INTRODUCTION

2.ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS - PROTEINS AND AMINO ACIDS
2.1 Proteins
2.1.1 Composition
2.1.2 Structure
2.1.3 Chemical properties
2.1.4 Classification
2.2 Protein function
2.3 Protein requirements
2.3.1 Optimum dietary protein level
2.3.2 Abiotic factors - temperature and salinity
2.4 Amino acids
2.5 Amino acid function
2.6 Amino acid requirements
2.6.1 Optimum dietary essential amino acid levels
2.6.2 Utilization of free amino acids
2.6.3 Amino acid composition and protein quality
2.7 Evaluation of protein quality
2.8 Nonprotein nitrogenous constituents
2.9 Protein and amino acid pathology
2.9.1 Dietary essential amino acid deficiency
2.9.2 Toxic non-essential amino acids

3. ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS - LIPIDS
3.1 Lipids
3.1.1 Classification
3.1.2 General function
3.2 Fats and oils
3.2.1 Composition
3.2.2 Fatty acid structure and classification
3.2.3 Fatty acid biosynthesis
3.2.4 Essential fatty acid requirements
3.3 Phospholipids
3.3.1 Structure and function
3.3.2 Dietary requirement
3.4 Glycolipids
3.5 Waxes
3.6 Steroids
3.6.1 Cholesterol
3.6.2 Bile acids
3.7 Lipid pathology
3.7.1 Dietary essential fatty acid deficiency
3.7.2 Dietary essential fatty acid toxicity
3.7.3 Toxic non-essential fatty acids
3.7.4 Oxidation of dietary lipids

4. ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS - CARBOHYDRATES
4.1 Carbohydrates
4.1.1 Classification
4.1.2 Monosaccharides
4.1.3 Disaccharides
4.1.4 Homopolysaccharides
4.1.5 Heteropolysaccharides
4.2 Carbohydrate function
4.3 Carbohydrate metabolism
4.4 Dietary carbohydrate utilization

5. ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS - VITAMINS
5.1 Definition and classification
5.2 Water-soluble vitamins
5.2.1 Thiamine
5.2.2 Riboflavin
5.2.3 Pyridoxine
5.2.4 Pantothenic acid
5.2.5 Nicotinic acid
5.2.6 Biotin
5.2.7 Folic acid
5.2.8 Cyanocobalamin
5.2.9 Inositol
5.2.10 Choline
5.2.11 Ascorbic acid
5.3 Fat-soluble vitamins
5.3.1 Retinol
5.3.2 Cholecalciferol
5.3.3 Tocopherol
5.3.4 Phylloquinone
5.4 Dietary vitamin requirements
5.5 Vitamin pathology
5.5.1 Vitamin deficiency
5.5.2 Vitamin toxicity

6. ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS - MINERALS
6.1 Introduction and classification
6.2 General function
6.3 Macroelements
6.3.1 Calcium
6.3.2 Phosphorus
6.3.3 Magnesium
6.3.4 Sodium, Potassium and Chlorine
6.3.5 Sulphur
6.4 Microelements
6.4.1 Iron
6.4.2 Zinc
6.4.3 Manganese
6.4.4 Copper
6.4.5 Cobalt
6.4.6 Iodine
6.4.7 Selenium
6.4.8 Chromium
6.5 Dietary mineral requirements
6.6 Mineral pathology
6.6.1 Mineral deficiency
6.6.2 Mineral toxicity

7. ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS - ENERGY
7.1 Energy and work
7.2 Laws of thermodynamics
7.3 Energy units
7.4 Dietary energy sources
7.5 Energy metabolism
7.6 Energy balance and dietary requirement

8. ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS - RECOMMENDED NUTRIENT SPECIFICATIONS FOR COMPLETE DIETS
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Fish
8.3 Shrimp

9. REFERENCES

LIST OF TABLES

Table

  1. Dietary protein requirement of fish and shrimp (expressed as percent of dry diet)

  2. Quantitative essential amino acid (EAA) requirements of selected fish species
  3. Mean dietary EAA requirement pattern (%) and EAA pattern in body tissue of whole fish, short-necked clam, marine shrimp, and the freshwater prawn
  4. Calculated dietary EAA requirements of fish and shrimp at varying dietary protein levels (values are expressed as a percent of the dry diet)
  5. Chemical score and limiting amino acids of some commonly used feed proteins
  6. Nonprotein nitrogenous constituents derived from amino acids in animals
  7. Dietary essential fatty acid (EFA) requirement of fish (requirement expressed as a percentage of the dry diet)
  8. Carbohydrate classification
  9. Vitamin classification
  10. Dietary vitamin requirements of fish and shrimp
  11. The essential mineral elements
  12. Dietary mineral requirements of fish and shrimp
  13. Availability of various sources of dietary phosphorus in fish
  14. Gross energy value of selected feed ingredeints
  15. Recommended dietary nutrient levels for carnivorous fish species
  16. Recommended dietary nutrient levels for omnivorous fish species
  17. Recommended dietary nutrient levels for carnivorous shrimp species
  18. Recommended dietary nutrient levels for omnivorous shrimp species

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure

  1. The role of natural pond food organisms and artificial feeds in the nutrition of fish and shrimp within extensive, semi-intensive and intensive culture systems
  2. Typical dose response curve
  3. Relationship between pattern of EAA requirements found by feeding experiments using amino acid test diets with carp, Japanese eel, channel catfish and chinook salmon, and the pattern of the same amino acids in fish cărcass
  4. Essential fatty acid composition (g/100g fatty acid) of some common fats and oils
  5. Central role of ATP in cellular energetics
  6. Generalized view of nitrogen balance in fish (after Luquet, 1982)
  7. Utilization of dietary energy in salminids (after Luquet, 1982)


July 1987

the Fish Site Editor

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