Wild-caught seafood supply from the ocean has reached capacity. Aquaculture thus must meet future demand. Like all farming activities, aquaculture impacts the environment. Informed consumers increasingly drive adoption of sustainable practices that reduce discharge of waste, feed ingredients derived from over-harvested fish stocks, antibiotics, excessive use of water, and escape of cultured stock to wild gene pools. This requires a shift from traditional flow-through to Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS).
This paper describes a sustainable alternative: high-density, indoor, biofloc-dominated shrimp production with no water exchange based on in situ microbial floc that removes harmful metabolites and provide supplement nutrition.