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Study Sees Problems for Farmed Salmon Vaccines

Salmonids Health Biosecurity +6 more

NORWAY - A Norwegian study recently looked at the effects of vaccine-induced autoimmunity in farmed salmon and found that inherent problems may significantly effect production.

Over half of the salmon consumed globally are farm-raised. The introduction of oil-adjuvanted vaccines into salmon aquaculture made large-scale production feasible by preventing infections.

The vaccines that are given contain oil adjuvant such as mineral oil. However, in rodents, a single i.p. injection of adjuvant hydrocarbon oil induces lupus-like systemic autoimmune syndrome, characterized by autoantibodies, immune complex glomerulonephritis, and arthritis, says an abstract to the new report.

According to the Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, in the present study, whether the farmed salmon that received oil-adjuvanted vaccine have autoimmune syndrome similar to adjuvant oil-injected rodents was examined. Sera and tissues were collected from vaccinated or unvaccinated Atlantic salmon (experimental, seven farms) and wild salmon.

Autoantibodies (immunofluorescence, ELISA, and immunoprecipitation) and IgM levels (ELISA) in sera were measured. Kidneys and livers were examined for pathology. Autoantibodies were common in vaccinated fish vs unvaccinated controls and they reacted with salmon cells/Ags in addition to their reactivity with mammalian Ags.

The results of the study showed that thrombosis and granulomatous inflammation in liver, and immune-complex glomerulonephritis were common in vaccinated fish. Autoimmunity similar to the mouse model of adjuvant oil-induced lupus is common in vaccinated farmed Atlantic salmon. This may have a significant impact on production loss, disease of previously unknown etiology, and future strategies of vaccines and salmon farming.