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Brown Crab Management

Breeding & genetics

The brown crab fishery is economically a very important fishery for Scottish vessels with total landings in 2008 of around 9,000 tonnes and a value of 10 million.


Landing (Tonnes) by Brown crab into Scotland by Scottish vessels, 1074 to 2008

The fishery is long established and landings, although variable, have increased significantly over the last thirty years. Previously, most brown crab was caught inshore in mixed species creel fisheries. From the mid 1980s technological advances allowed the fishery to expand to offshore areas to the west and north of Scotland, which nowadays account for almost a third of total landings. Landings from the four principal brown crab fishing areas, the hebrides, Sule, South Minch and orkney, made up 66 per cent of the total in 2008. The majority of crabs are landed in the third and fourth quarters of the year and a large proportion are exported live to markets in southern europe.

Biology and life cycle

Creel fishery assessment areas and Scottish Brown Crab landings (Tonnes) in 2008

The brown crab is found all around the Scottish coast from the shallow sub-littoral into offshore waters to depths exceeding 100 m. It inhabits rocky reefs, mixed coarse grounds and soft sediments (muddy sand) particularly on the offshore grounds. Brown crabs eat mainly benthic invertebrates, particularly bivalves, small decapods and barnacles; although their capture in baited traps indicates that they will also scavenge for food. In common with other crustaceans, brown crab grow by casting (moulting) their shell and then hardening a new larger shell. Growth rate varies between areas, and animals will typically recruit to the fishery, (140 mm carapace width (Cw)) at four to six years old. Small animals may moult several times in a year, but at larger sizes growth slows down and the inter-moult period can be as long as four years. female brown crabs in Scottish waters typically mature between 130-150 mm Cw. during courtship the mature female is guarded by a male.

Creel fishery assessment areas and estimated fishing mortality, 2006-2008

Mating takes place post-moult while the shell is still soft. females produce up to three million eggs. fertilised eggs are carried under the female’s “tail” for up to nine months, over the winter, until they hatch. The larvae are pelagic and drift with water movements until they settle to the seabed as miniature adults (about 2.5 mm in size) in summer or autumn depending on latitude and water temperature. Juvenile crabs are more commonly found in shallow inshore waters.

Adult crabs, especially females, can undertake extensive seasonal migrations (100s of kilometers), behaviour thought to be associated with reproduction. Migration of adults and the dispersal of larvae will both influence how connected stocks are. The structure of brown crab populations around Scotland is poorly understood.

Management advice

The brown crab fishery is not subject to eu TAC regulations or national quotas, although there are eu measures in place to restrict the fishing effort (kilo watt (kw) days) of all vessels > 15 m (including creel boats) in ICeS Sub-area vI. In Scotland, vessels landing brown crab are required to have a licence with a shellfish entitlement. vessels without this entitlement are only allowed to land limited amounts (25 crabs per day). The main regulatory mechanism is a minimum landing size of 140 mm Cw to the north of 56°N and 130 mm CW to the south of 56°N, except for the firth of forth.


Age determination is generally not possible for animals which moult and application of agestructured assessment methods to crustacean stocks is problematic. length Cohort Analysis (LCA) is the method used for assessing brown crab stocks. It uses official landings and length frequency data collected as part of the Marine Scotland Science market sampling programme. LCA results are calculated in terms of yield-per-recruit and biomass-per-recruit relative to changes in fishing mortality. This provides a framework for evaluation of management measures. Assuming a direct relationship between fishing mortality and effort, generally lower levels of fishing effort will result in an increase in stock size and a reduction in landings. A higher level of fishing effort will reduce total stock biomass but landings may also fall, as animals are caught before they have had time to grow to a size that would contribute much weight to the yield (growth overfishing). In between these lies FMAx, the fishing mortality rate that maximises yield-per-recruit. The changes that the LCA predicts are long-term (equilibrium). The method does not provide any indication of shortterm stock dynamics or recruitment over-fishing. Assessments are performed on a regional basis for males and females separately.

June 2010