Can Halamid be used in salt water/seawater?

Yes, Halamid can be used in seawater, brackish water and fresh water under the same conditions.

Can Halamid be used in the presence of fish?

Yes, Halamid has the unique feature that it can be used as disinfectant in presence of fish.

Fresh water raceway set up:

Halamid® is added at a concentration of approximately 10-20 ppm (10-20 g/m3). After 1 hour, flush with fresh water to remove residual Halamid®. This can be repeated up to 4 times on consecutive or alternate days.

Stagnant fresh water ponds:

Halamid® is added at a concentration of 3 ppm (3 g/m3) once a week. Water pH and hardness are two important parameters to consider in order to optimize the Halamid® concentration. As a general rule, with acidic pH, a lower concentration should be used and with increasing water hardness, a higher Halamid® concentration is recommended. Also, if using a biofilter in a recirculated water system, special attention must be taken. Please contact Axcentive or your distributor for more detailed information.

Can Halamid replace formaldehyde or glutaraldehyde?

Aldehyde products are posing health risks to the operators using them for disinfection by spraying, fogging, etc. Halamid replaces formaldehydes or glutaraldehydes without any problem. Follow the standard guidelines in our documentation to obtain excellent disinfection results. After proper cleaning one disinfection step with Halamid suffice. Should you prefer to keep an additional fogging step in place, then Halamid in combination with an aerosol can be applied here as well.

Can I use Halamid for equipement disinfection?

Yes Halamid is the perfect disinfectant for:

  • Tanks and equipment
  • Net disinfection
  • Vehicle disinfection
  • Well boat disinfection
  • Footbath
  • Processing plants
  • Artemia
  • Fish eggs

How can Halamid be effective against the Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS)?

On EMS or also mentioned acute hepatopancreatic degenerative necrosis syndrome (AHDNS) the cause has been found, just recently. In fact a bacteriophage (= virus that only infect bacteria) infects the bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus and in the body of the shrimp the Vibrio starts to produce toxins (toxic excretions) which causes the animal to die. This cause would indicate that shrimp can be protected, either by destroying the bacteriophage or by killing the host bacterium (the Vibrio). Probably it is more practical to keep Vibrio under control as bacteriophages are smaller and more difficult to control to a level where they do no longer harm and they are generally present in all kinds of waters (oceans/lakes, etc). Vibrio parahaemolyticus is efficiently killed by Halamid®.

What is the difference between probiotics and Halamid?

Halamid is a disinfectant with the sole purpose to kill micro organisms. Probiotics do not kill micro organisms but try to create an overall better water quality. In this sense probiotics and Halamid are complementary.

Can Probiotics and Halamid be used together?

There is not much practical experience on this. A Halamid residue may not have much effect on probiotics. This means Probiotics can safely be added a few days after Halamid was added. However we advise at this stage against dosing Halamid to a pond where probiotics have been added.

How long can Halamid be active in a shrimp pond?

In a shrimp pond, two days after Halamid was added to the pond, about 50 % of the dosed Halamid is still available. By then the concentration has gone back to a level where activity is limited, unless initial concentration was relatively high ( > 3 ppm).

Is Halamid effective against protozoa?

Yes, for example ciliates and Ichthyobodo necator are effectively killed.

Is Halamid anywhere approved for use in aquaculture?

The European medicinal agency has reviewed Halamid for fin fish use and concluded no MRL was necessary (Annex II); in the United States the FDA is reviewing Halamid and given it the so-called MUMS status in 2006. This status allows use of products with pending registration on species that are not a major food source. In the United States Halamid has a full NADA status as an aquaculture drug by the FDA since May 2014.

Does a Halamid treatment cause residues in the fish or shrimps?

For fish, extensive trials in the USA on salmonids have shown that Halamid, or its break down residue, para toluene sulfonamide do not accumulate in fish tissues and leave the body completely.

Is Halamid when used in water with fish considered as a drug or a biocide?

In Europe, biocides used in aquaculture are not considered drugs, even when used in the presence of fish. In this case no claim for treatment against a disease or curing of the fish can be made. The function is to reduce pathogen levels in the water. It has been shown that this is preventing diseases and is improving welfare of healthy and diseased animals.

Do you have any supportive data on the percentage of killing when Halamid was applied in 3ppm in water with aquatic living in the water during any disease challange? example Vibrio parahaemolyticus?

In order to achieve a complete killing of Vibrio (from a high level e.g. > 1000000) you need at least 5 ppm Halamid (and probably even more when in dirty water). In the lab, without fish at 25 oC, 17 degrees DH (water hardness) and 25 ppt salinity, 2.5 ppm (> 24 hr contact time) or 5 ppm (less than 24 hr) Halamid were required or a complete kill (log 6 reduction) of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

What is the effect of Halamid on zooplankton

Zooplankton is a broad collection of small aquatic organisms, in terms of cell number, larger than bacteria, viruses or fungi. These more complex organisms are less susceptible to the effect of oxidative disinfectants than bacteria, but higher concentrations over an extended time period will have a killing effect. This means that raceways treated with (10 – 20 ppm) Halamid should not be released without dilution into surface waters in order to protect natural zooplankton. Stagnant pond systems treated with 1 – 3 ppm with zooplankton present should not show significant negative effect on the proliferation of this zooplankton. This advice has not been lab-tested but is based on practical experience.

How can I measure the chlorine content?

To determine the residual Halamid® concentration in water one can do Halamid ion testing in which you measure the chlorine content:

Chlorine can be easily measured using strips, like you can find here.

This gives you a rough indication if chlorine is still present at ppm level.

You could also use a titration test like:

This gives you an exact figure.

There are also electronic devices available in the market:


Europe, Americas, Middle East and Africa

Axcentive SARL
Chemin de Champouse
13320 Bouc Bel Air
t. +33 442 694 090
f. +33 442 694 099

Asia, India and Australasia

Axcentive Asia Pte Ltd
13 Lorong 8 Toa Payoh
#07-01 Braddell Tech Park
319261 Singapore
t. +65 6258 6338
f. +65 6258 6901